Practice Research Paper Evidence

The following evidence is in quotes if it was taken word-for-word from the source.  If the evidence was paraphrased, it is not in quotes.  Technically, if you copy and paste it from here, you should place it in quotes; but for this exercise, we are pretending these are your notes from the sources.

(1) “At current usage rates, the needless deaths and injuries that result from nonuse continue to cost society an estimated $10 billion annually in medical care, lost productivity, and other injury related costs” (“The Economic and Societal Impact,” 2010).

(2) Concerning Princess Diana’s death in an automobile crash in August of 1997, “A computer simulation of the accident done for CNN by Renfroe Engineering in Farmington, Arkansas, shows that seat belts may have indeed turned the fatal crash into one that was survivable…” (“Could a seat belt have saved Diana,” 1997).

(3) ”Prior to 2009, not wearing a seat belt was a secondary offense in Minnesota, which allowed law enforcement officers to ticket for failure to wear seat belts only when there was another moving violation. Under the primary seat belt law, officers can ticket drivers for not wearing a seat belt without any other law being broken. According to the researchers, the safety benefits of the law translate into a savings of at least $67 million in avoided hospital charges, including nearly $16 million in taxpayer dollars that would have paid for Medicare and Medicaid charges” (“Primary Seat Belt Law Continues,” 2014).

(4) According to the Centers for Disease Control, “About 3,000 lives could be saved each year by increasing seat belt use to 100 percent” (“Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities,” 2016).

(5) “Based on the economic analysis, it was found that 1% incremental increase in current seat belt usage rate could annually save about $14 million to the state of Kansas. If seat belt usage in Kansas reaches the 2005 national average rate of 82%, the expected annual economic savings could be estimated to be around $222 million” (Dissanayake, 2009).

(6) “I was driving cautiously on an icy Interstate 94 just south of Fergus Falls when an SUV passed me and kicked up a big snow cloud. In an instant, shrouded in a whiteout, the back end of my Ford Mustang slid and I skated across the freeway and into the ditch. The car went airborne, and I heard a loud thump. In a surreal moment, I found myself upside down thinking, ‘Oh, so this is what a rollover is like.’ Yes, that was a strange thought to have at a time when my life was in peril, except I’m a journalist who has written about countless crashes like that but had never experienced one. As the Mustang completed its tumble and landed right-side up in a deep ravine 75 feet off the road, I slowly came to my senses. I held the dislodged rearview mirror in my lap and looked out the spider-webbed windshield, wondering how I was going to get home and to work the next day. The gravity of the situation set in and I said aloud, ‘I’m glad I was wearing my seat belt.’ I walked away without a scratch” (Harlow, 2015).

(7) “Wisconsin law provides for a fine of $10 and no points are assigned against a person’s driver record. Those subject to the penalty include drivers, drivers with unrestrained passengers 4 to 16 years old and passengers at least 16 years old. The penalty for violating the child passenger law involving a child under the age of 4 is not less than $30 or more than $75. The penalty for violating the child passenger law involving a child between the ages of 4-8 is not less than $10 or more than $25” (“Seat Belt Law,” n.d.).

(8) “Carolyn Hanig is an Oklahoma life flight nurse who was called to a mass-casualty incident involving several motor vehicles. As the helicopter flew over the crash scene, the flight crew could see several victims lying about, already receiving medical attention. Carolyn and her partner went to assist a badly injured young man who was receiving CPR in an ambulance. As she moved in to help, Carolyn froze as she recognized the young man’s shoes. They belonged to her 17-year-old son, Nik, who was an unbelted back seat passenger in one of the vehicles. His injuries were grave and he did not survive. Based on her firsthand experience at the site of many terrible crashes, Carolyn had done everything she could think of to teach Nik the importance of wearing a seat belt–she had even made him visit the hospital room of a young man who became a paraplegic after a crash in which he wasn’t wearing a belt. With all that knowledge, however, Nik still wasn’t wearing his seat belt on that day. A front-seat passenger who was buckled in walked away with only minor cuts and bruises” (“Standard Enforcement Saves,” 1999).

(9) “This report presents the results of an analysis of motor vehicle crash costs in the United State in the year 2000. The total economic cost of motor vehicle crashes in 2000 was $230.6 billion. This represents the present value of lifetime costs for 41,821 fatalities, 5.3 million non-fatal injuries, and 28 million damaged vehicles, in both police-reported and unreported crashes. Lost market productivity accounted for $61 billion of this total, while property damage accounted for nearly as much – $59 billion. Medical expenses totaled $32.6 billion and travel delay accounted for $25.6 billion. Each fatality resulted in an average discounted lifetime cost of $977,000. Public revenues paid for roughly 9% of all motor vehicle crash costs, costing tax payers $21 billion in 2000, the equivalent of over $200 in added taxes for every household in the U.S. Alcohol-involved crashes accounted for $51.1 billion or 22% of all economic costs, and 75% of these costs occurred in crashes where a driver or non-occupant had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of .10 or greater. In roughly 80% of these cases, alcohol was the cause of the crash. Crashes in which police indicate that at least one driver was exceeding the legal speed limit or driving too fast for conditions cost $40.4 billion in 2000. Safety belt use prevented 11,900 fatalities, 325,000 serious injuries, and $50 billion in injury related costs in 2000, but the failure of a substantial portion of the driving population to buckle up caused 9,200 unnecessary fatalities, 143,000 serious injuries, and cost society $26 billion in easily preventable injury related costs.” (“The Economic Impact,” 2000).

(10) “In Illinois, each driver and passenger shall wear a properly adjusted and fastened seat safety belt. Fine: $25” (fine does not include court costs) (“Illinois Seat Belt Laws,” n.d.).

(11) “Jonathan S. Mendoza has paid thousands of dollars in fines for not wearing a seat belt and for driving with a suspended license and he was back in municipal court on Monday, April 14, to face more of the same. Mendoza, 27, of Bloomfield pleaded guilty in municipal court on Monday, April 14, to his 11th and latest charge of driving without a seatbelt and a sixth charge of driving with a suspended license. Judge Brian Levine fined Mendoza $156 and $33 in court costs for the latest seat belt violation, totaling more than $1,700 for the 11 violations. For his latest charge of driving with a suspended license, Mendoza was fined $1,006 and $33 in costs and was ordered to complete 20 days with the Morris County Sheriff’s Labor Assistance Program” (Garber, 2014).

(12) From the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute, In Texas, the fine is $200 for a single violation (“Safety Belts,” 2016).

References

Could a seat belt have saved Diana? Computer simulation shows tragedy possibly avoidable. (1997, September 5) Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9709/05/crash.analysis/

Dissanayake, S. (2009) Estimating Economic Benefits Due to Increased Seat Belt Use: A Case Study. Department of Civil Engineering, Kansas State University. Retrieved from http://www.intrans.iastate.edu/publications/_documents/midcon-presentations/2009/DissanayakeBelt.pdf

Garber, P. (2014, April 22).  Failure to wear seat belt 11 times gets costly in Mount Olive. Mount Olive Chronicle. http://www.newjerseyhills.com/mt_olive_chronicle/news/failure-to-wear-seat-belt-times-gets-costly-in-mount/article_e4a1816a-ca29-11e3-aa4f-0019bb2963f4.html

Harlow, T. (2015, May 18) The Drive: How wearing a seat belt saved my life. Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.startribune.com/the-drive-how-wearing-a-seat-belt-saved-my-life/304053011/

Illinois Seat Belt Laws (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.buckleupillinois.org/Illinois_Safety_Belt_Laws.asp

Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities in the U.S. Could Drop by Half with Proven Strategies, (2016, July 6) Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p0706-crash-deaths.html

Primary Seat Belt Law Continues To Save Lives, Money. (June 2014) CTS Catalyst. University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved from http://www.cts.umn.edu/Publications/catalyst/2014/june/seatbelt

 

Safety Belts. (2016, July). Retrieved from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/laws/safetybeltuse?topicName=safety-belts

Seat Belt Law. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://wisconsindot.gov/Pages/safety/education/seat-belt/law.aspx

Standard Enforcement Saves Lives: The Case for Strong Seat Belt LAWS (1999, January) Retrieved from http://libdb.blackhawk.edu:2081/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=SWI1500-0-4873&artno=0000097439&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=&title=Standard%20Enforcement%20Saves%20Lives%3A%20The%20Case%20for%20Strong%20Seat%20Belt%20Laws&res=Y&ren=N&gov=Y&lnk=N&ic=N

The Economic and Societal Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes (2010) National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Retrieved from https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812013

The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes (2000) The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Retrieved from https://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=718150